Bounce is defined as the angle (in degrees) between the ground and the club's sole plane. At impact in soft turf or sand, a higher bounce angle increases the upward resisting force on the sole of the club to prevent excess digging. For firm turf and sand, lower bounce angles improve contact by reducing this resisting force, allowing the leading edge to easily slide underneath the ball.
Camber is the curvature of the sole from the leading edge to
the trailing edge. Camber reduces bounce on back of sole and
increases bounce angle on front of sole.
Grooves function like tread on a tire to channel moisture and debris away from the contact surface to improve friction. Wedges are used more frequently than irons from poor lies, so they require larger and more effective grooves to channel the most debris possible. For the
best spin performance from the rough, grooves will channel enough moisture and grass into the grooves to prevent grass from being caught between the ball and the face at impact.
The overall shape of the sole represents its sole design.
These sole designs are used to meet various players' needs.
Sole radius is designed to improve versatility around the greens.
A curved sole allows the hands and club to be at different impact
positions while still making proper contact with the ground. A flat
radius aids stability on full shots.
Sole width is the measurement from the leading edge to the
trailing edge of the sole. Sole width works like bounce - a larger
sole width increases the upward force on the sole at impact, thus
reducing fat shots and improving bunker play. However, a wide
sole also reduces consistency on open-faced shots by significantly
raising the leading edge off the ground at address/impact.